Studies show good health is all important

Prematurity , Myopia and Diabetes ……emerging risks factors for increased blindness due to retinopathy 

Introduction of Retinopthy:

Retinopathy means that disease has damaged the retina. The retina is the part inside the eye that senses light. Different diseases can cause retinopathy. There can be partial or complete loss of vision. Retinopathy can develop slowly or suddenly, can get better on its own or lead to permanent damage.The retina contains many blood vessels. Abnormalities in these vessels are a major cause of retinopathy.

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) 

India has the highest overall number of premature births in the world. India is currently facing an ROP epidemic that has penetrated into peripheral rural districts.The incidence of ROP in different regions across India has been reported to range from 38% to 47%. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in children worldwide. screening guidelines to GA of <35 weeks and/or BW of <2000 g. In addition, infants of 34–37 weeks’ GA or with BW of 1750–2000 g are screened in the presence of risk factors for ROP. 2 out of 10 rop  babies become blind due to this disease . but this is a preventable disease if diagnosed at right time and treated at right time. Only screening before 4 wks of delivery and regular follow ups can result into 80% recovery. Rest ROP babies need laser treatment and sometimes antivegf inj which results in 90% recovery from the disease


  1. The prevalence of myopia is increasing globally.It has been predicted that, by the year 2050, high myopia will affect 9.8% of the global population; a total of 938 million people.High myopia is said to occur when a person’s myopia progresses until they need −5 dioptres (D) or more of spherical correction.Even when appropriate refractive correction is provided, myopia continues to place an individual at an increased risk of sight-threatening diseases, includingGlaucoma (open-angle) Cataract (nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular) Retinal tears which may lead to a retinal detachment Myopic maculopathy or myopic macular degeneration .The incidence of these conditions is greatest in individuals with high myopia. The risk of developing a retinal detachment is five or six times greater in people with high myopia (OR >20) compared to those with low myopia (OR <4).Retinal detachment can affect any age group.  Patients should  contact an retina  specialist immediately if they see flashing lights (usually seen in dim light in the temporal peripheral field) or floaters, or if they experience visual field loss. They must undergo an urgent dilated exam to exclude retinal tears and/or detachment.

Diabetic Retinopathy 

Diabetes Mellitus damages blood vessels of retina of eye which results in permanent blindness. In India the number of diabetes is increasing very rapidly. By 2030 India will become diabetic capital of world. 2 out of 10 diabetic pt will suffer from diabetic blinding eye disease. So we can see that in future many pts will become blind because of retinal disease. It can cause bleeding , retina detachment or macular edema ( swelling  at vision centre of retina ) But this disease is preventable or delayed if detected earlier  and treated timely. All diabetic pts need to checked his or her eye once a year by a retina expert irrespective of symptoms . Treatment in terms of laser , injection or surgery is only required if vision threatening conditions appear in retina .


Most of retina diseases have no prior symptoms . Pts usually land up with partial or total vision loss .You should meet a retina expert ,if you notice changes in your vision, particularly if they are sudden. Changes may include:

  • Blurring
  • Spots( floater)
  • Flashes
  • Blind spots
  • Distortion
  • Difficulty reading or doing detail work
  • Visual field defect


The best way to treat retina disease is to detect the disease earlier by routine retina examination by a retina expert. In premature babies , the screening of eye should be done within 30 days of birth . All myopic pts should go for check up of retina annually . In diabetes controlling of sugar is the only best treatment to prevent its development of retinopathy. Type I diabetic pts should start his retina check up after 5 yrs from detection and type II diabetic pt should immediately go for retina check once detected for diabetes . In recent past there is a huge development in the field of retina disease treatment . With the development of surgical skill , vitrectomy machine , laser and anti vegf inj and imaging machine , the retinal diseases  are  no more  untreatable conditions .Success rate has improved almost 90% in surgical conditions if treated earlier .


  1. Can we wait for getting treatment for retina disease as like cataract ?

Ans . No . Retina disease is an emergency condition , It has to be treated as early as possible for best results

  1. Can retina disease be treated by eye drops only ?

Ans . Retina is a innermost layer of eye . Most eye drops can not reach upto the retina . So most of eye drops will not have affect in retina . We treat it with laser or Inj or sometime by surgery

  1. Are laser or Injections are safe for eye ?

Ans . Yes. Almost safe (90 to 95 % safe )

  1. Is retina surgery is a day care procedure ?

Ans .Yes . Retina surgery is done with minimal invasive procedure technique with self sealing wound under local anesthesia . So patient can be discharged on the same day .


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